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  • 医学英文文摘规范初探

    12-03-23 22:35 来源:未知 ; 浏览:
      

    为了方便国际学术交流,达到资源共享,国内越来越多的学术刊物要求作者附上一条250字左右的英文摘要。翻译一则既通顺确切又符合国际文摘机构的医学英文文摘,必须知道英文文摘的基本语言格式。如果译出来的英语存在种种语病或不规范,不仅会影响对外交流,也将有损于刊物的声誉。本文初步探讨了英文文摘的基本规范。

    1 文摘的时态

    1.1 研究目的(objective):本部分陈述关于研究的目的、提出问题的缘由、研究的范围和重要性,多用一般过去时来表达。

    例1.The purpose of this study was to identify the correlationof disease and mortality risk associated with the presence ofstenosis in the major arterial segements of lower limb in menand women.

    J Clin Epidemiol, 1993, 46例2.The author determined whether some patients with clini-cal stage I and II invasive breast cancer can be adequatelytreated by conservative surgery without radiotherapy.

    Annals of Surgery, 1995, 222有时也用更简洁明了的不定式短语来表示,例3.To describe clinical and treatment aspects of syphilis in-fection among patients seropositive for the human immunode-fieiency virus (HIV)Am J Medi 1995例4.To characterize scalp involvement in patients with der-matomyositis.JAMA, 1994

    1.2 材料与方法:(Materials &Methods):本部分简要说明课题的基本设计、使用的材料与方法,如何分组、对照、数据如何取得等,宜用一般过去时。

    例5.Preoperative duplex sonography, computerized tomogra-phy and visceral angiography were obtained.

    例6. Methyl methacrylate vascular corrosion casting tech-niques were used to examine the normal anterior optic nervemicrovasculature in 18 human eye bank eyes.

    Ophthalmol, 1995实际上,在许多报道性文摘(informativeabstract)中,常将目的与方法合为一个句子:

    例7. [a]To study the surgical technique of fecal incontinencein children caused by meningomyelocele and occult spinal bifi-da, [b] 56 cases aged 4 to 14 years were treated by modifiedrectal suspension.在例7中, [a]部分为不定式短语来表示目的, [b]部分说明所选择的研究对象和方法。

    1.3 研究结果(Results):本部分列出主要结果与数据,有什么新发现,说明其价值或局限,多用一般过去时。

    例8.Postoperatively,eight patients showed subjective and ob-jective improvement.

    例9.The mean CD4+T-lymphocyte count was predictive ofrelapse.

    4、结论或建议(Conclusions):本部分阐述经验证或论证而取得的结论,说明其理论价值或实用价值,是否可推广、推荐等,常用一般现在时。在文献中,由“结果”;到“讨论”;的过渡正是通过这一时态的变化体现出来的。

    例10.These new techniques are a successful alternative in thetreatment of acquired Brown' s syndrom.

    例11.The authr conclude the anal sinus is susceptible.

    在作出结论或提出建议时,为了对自己的观点进行保护,常用模糊语(hedging)。这里的模糊语指暂定性动词(tentative verbs),如:Suggest,indicate,recom-mend等和情态动词may, can, might。

    例12.These results indicate that domestic factors are morelikely to predict women' s tranquilizer use.

    例13.Compression ultrasonography may be reliable for the e-valuation of patients with suspected symptomatic infra-popliteal deep venous thrombosis.

    2 文摘的语态·126·温州医学院学报(J Wenzhou Med Coll) 1997年第27卷第2期在英语中,被动语态可以避免提及有关执行者,使行文显得客观。同时,被动语态的句子在结构上有较大的调节余地,可扩展名词短语来实出题旨,扩大句子的信息量。这时的信息中心在主语部分,使人对论题产生先入为主的印象。这种结构看似头重脚轻,但它符合文摘直截了当、开门见山的特点,因此在文摘中经常使用。

    例14.A series of 113 cases of interior resection with end-to-end anastomosis by using double stapling device were carried.

    例15.A clinical investigation of acetylcysterin on the preven-tion of recurrence of idiopathic calcium oxiats calculi in stoneformers was conducted.

    但在显示结果和提出结论或建议时,常用主动语态,见例8、例13、例14、例15。

    3 文摘的简洁(Brevity)文摘是科技语言密集、精炼的集中表现,特别是在数据库储存文摘并供人们检索的今天,在编写和制作光盘或磁带英文文摘时,更应在不影响文摘内容完整性的前提下,注意用词的精炼和句子的简明,以尽可能节省储存空间。

    3.1 多用单词,少用短语:

    如少用: A comparison was made between the histologic fea-tures of conventional micro-surgical reanastomosis and CO2laser microsurgical welding.

    多用:The histologic features of conventional microsurgical re-anastomosis and CO2laser microsurgical welding were com-pared.

    类似这样具有相同意义的单词和短语还有:

    短语: have an effect ontake into considerationconduct an investigation intofor the purpose ofbe capable ofcannot be made smallerwith the exception ofin spite of the fact that单词: affectconsiderinvestigateforcanirreducibleexcept foralthough3.2 多用复合名词,少用短语:复合名词是用两个或更多的名词组合而成,前面的名词起着修饰语的作用,如下面两个意思相同的句子中,使用复合名词的句子要简明得多:

    例16.A device for controlling consumption of energy to theminimum was designed.

    改成: Aminimum energy consumption control device was de-signed.

    例17.Records which are obtained from EEG are indispens-able.

    改成: EEG records are indispensable.

    3.3 少用there be结构,多用主谓结构:

    例18.There were 6 cases of local recurrence.

    改成: Six cases had local recurrences.

    例19.There are many patients who are being treated in thismanner in both academic and community hospitals.

    改成: Many patients are being thus treated in academic andcommunity hospitals.

    3.4 多用分词,少用定语从句:

    例20.This is a brief summary which is based on 20 cases ofsilicotuberculosis that are documented in our department.

    此句中的划线部分应省略。

    例21.Compounds which contain nicotin are observed.

    改成: Nicotin-containing compounds are observed.

    例22.Infections which are spread in this way are hard to re-sist.

    改成: Infections thus spread are hard to resist.

    但应该注意的是,过去分词作定语是定语从句被动结构的省略形成,所以,一些不能用于被动结构的动词或动词短语,如suffer from, result from等,也就不能用过去分词作定语。以下各句中的划线部分均为过去分词误用,应在过去分词前加上关系代词that或which,使之成为定语从句:

    例23. In this paper we report a case of acute portal veinthrombosis occurred following a right hepatic lobectomy formetastatic liver disease.

    例24.This article reports 17 cases of rare tumors originatedfrom the pteryomaxillary region.

    3.5 多用“连词+分词”;,少用状语从句:

    例25. The high rate of technical inadequacy in ultrasoundstudies observed here, if it is confirmed in larger studies, maylimit the usefulness of ultrasound in this setting.

    例26.Research lab test titres were at the highest risk of sub-sequent relapse or treatment failure when they were monitoredfor an average of 2 years.

    上述两句划线部分应省略。但须注意,只有当状语从句中的主语与主句中的主语一致时,方可省略。如:

    例27.Undesirable reactions occur if the medication is stoppedsuddenly.

    此句中的划线部分不能省略。

    3.6 多用单部句:尤其是磁带或光盘的英文文摘,需进一步压缩文字以节省储存空间,常用单部句。如一般文摘的开头往往是:

    The purpose of this report is to emphasize the value of…而在磁带或光盘文摘中,划线部分用第三人称“emphasizes”;取代,写成: Emphasizes the value of…又如The results of treatment of early gastric carci-noma were analysed in 165patients.

    写成:Analyses the results of treatment of eatly gastriccarcinoma.

    4 文摘的书写:

    4.1 数字的书写:数字在医学论文文摘中占有重要地位。在多数情况下,英文摘要中的数字用阿拉伯数字表示,但要注意以下几种特殊情况:

    (1)当数字出现在句首时,要用英文单词而不用数码表示,如:

    误: 38 cases of chronic gastric volvulus were analysed.

    正: Thirty-eight cases of chronic volvulus were anal-ysed.

    (2)位于句首的数字只要前面有一个单词,就不必用单词表示,如:

    A 60-year-old woman was evaluated for bone pain andincapacitating weakness.

    (3)化学名称前的数字出现在句首时不必用单词表示,如:

    2-10-Difluo robibenzo pyrene had no lumorigenic activ-ity.

    4.2 缩略语及特殊符号的书写:在所有科技文献中缩略语的词频以文摘为最高。缩略语的大量采用,既有利于写作和排版,又可大大减轻读者的视觉负担。但缩略语和符号要用括号注明。如:

    例28.Eight cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE)were reviewed.

    5 文摘的专业语言特色在医学文摘中,有些句子从语法角度去分析并不通顺,但在专业人员看来反而顺畅。如:

    .Among the 3 neonatal deaths, two died of respiratorydistress syndrom.句中的主语显然是指deaths,所以按语法应改为Among the 3 neonatal deaths, two were dueto respiratory distress syndrom.然而这么一改,就显得咬文嚼字,在医务人员看来却是十分多余而令人兴味索然了。

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